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Through a series of changes within the nucleus, it emits several particles, ending up with 82 protons and 125 neutrons.

This is a stable condition, and there are no more changes in the atomic nucleus.

Atomic nuclei are held together by an attraction between the large nuclear particles (protons and neutrons) that is known as the "strong nuclear force", which must exceed the electrostatic repulsion between the protons within the nucleus.

In general, with the exception of the single proton that constitutes the nucleus of the most abundant isotope of hydrogen, the number of neutrons must at least equal the number of protons in an atomic nucleus, because electrostatic repulsion prohibits denser packing of protons.

3) To have students see that individual runs of statistical processes are less predictable than the average of many runs (or that runs with relatively small numbers involved are less dependable than runs with many numbers).

4) To demonstrate how the rate of radioactive decay and the buildup of the resulting decay product is used in radiometric dating of rocks. (A single watch or clock for the entire class will do.) 6) Piece of paper marked TIME and indicating either 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 minutes.

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Students should be able to understand the principles and have that as a background so that age determinations by paleontologists and geologists don't seem like black magic. Geologists in the late 18th and early 19th century studied rock layers and the fossils in them to determine relative age.We then focus on the four most promising systems: U-Pb dating of carbonates, Re-Os dating of black shales, and U-Pb and Lu-Hf dating of phosphates.We review expected geochemical behavior of daughter and parent isotopes in the context of both marine and terrestrial depositional environments.After students have decided how to establish the relative age of each rock unit, they should list them under the block, from most recent at the top of the list to oldest at the bottom.The teacher should tell the students that there are two basic principles used by geologists to determine the sequence of ages of rocks.

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