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Leadused in classical times for ruling guidelines in manuscripts, was used extensively in the Middle Ages for rough notes and annotations in the margins of books. In classical times the black discharge of cuttlefish was used, as well as concoctions of soot and gum.Analysis of texts The essential skill of a paleographer is the ability to recognize the numerous styles of handwriting prevalent in different ages and places.By the 4th century another Latin alphabet existed, the script known as uncialin the nature of a rounded form of quadrata.Uncial survived the fall of Rome and from it developed half-uncial, the ancestor of the small letters in use today.
It was usually stripped of its vanes and the quill alone used.
In Greek cursive manuscripts the everyday life of ordinary people becomes a reality: A very rough division in Greek paleography may be made at around ad The earlier age is called the papyrus period; and the later, the parchment or Byzantine or Christian period.
The division, however, is imprecise, for parchment was used well before and papyrus long after this date.
Numerous abbreviations exist in Greek manuscripts, though never so many as in Latin.
Accentsan additional complexity, were not systematically applied before the 7th century ad.